Caffeine (CAF) was classified as an ergogenic substance due to its propriety causing a higher concentration and vigilance level. It also causes the improvement of psychophysical capacity of the mood and shortening of a reaction time. In January 2004, The World Anti- Doping Agency (WADA) removed caffeine from the list of substances forbidden in sports. Since that time, using CAF in different sports disciplines has become more and more popular.
In many scientific researches, in a laboratory method, the influence of different CAF- size doses given once or repeatedly in different time proportions, before and after physical effort , were examined.
The aim of research 1 was to eliminate the influence of an 8-week caffeine application in connection with regular trainings on aerobics efficiency , body mass and body ingredients.
In the experiment mentioned above, 36 students (14 men and 22 women) aged from 22.4+/- 2.9 were examined. The participants were divided into two 18-person groups from which the first group was given placebo and the second one- the caffeine dose of 201 mg. Both placebo doses and caffeine doses were absorbed during a training day 60 minutes before the beginning of a training.
The training took place three times a week during 8 weeks and consisted of a 45-minute running on a running track with the intensity of 75 %VOX2max.
After eight weeks of the research no significant differences between a placebo group and CAF supplementation group were observed as far as VO2max value and physical effort tolerance were concerned (measured as the time up to achieve extreme exhaustion during an effort test- TRE). The increases in VO2max and TRE were the result of regular training sessions. CAF supplementation did not significantly influence on the change in body mass and body composition.
In other authors’ works, the influence of giving once four different caffeine doses: 0, 2.2, 4.4 and 8.8 mg x kg-1 was observed. The supplement was given to 60 minutes before a march- running test. It was proved that only a dose of 4.4 mg x kg-1 statistically significantly influences on prolonging the time of exhaustion from 53.4 to 73.4 minutes.
The results of Graham and Spriet’s  research show that either a caffeine dose of 3.0 mg x kg-1or 6.0 mg x kg-1 absorbed 60 minutes before physical effort prolong the exhaustion time’s coming for 22%.
The influence of CAF on metabolism speed increase was observed by Haller  confirming that the intake of 200 mg of caffeine causes the level of free acid fat grow in blood plasma and that higher level remains up to 3 hours. However, it hasn’t been confirmed in Malek’s researches, where 8-week supplementation did not influence the change of body mass and body composition.
The researches’ results quoted above are methodologically multi- faceted, that is why some results are various. Mentioned above in details Malek’s and co. researches results were the first ones that analyzing the influence of long- term caffeine supplementation, so far only separate doses of CAF with a different size, that’s why they are important in development of sciences connected with supplementation and nutrition in sport.
- Malek M.H. Housh T.J., Coburn J.W., Beck T.W., Scmidt R.J., Housh D.J., Johnson G.O. Effect of eight weeks of caffeine supplementation and endurance training od aerobic fitness and body composition, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2006, 20(4), 751-755.
- Cadarette B.S., Levin L., Berube C.L. Effect of varied dosages of caffeine on endurance exercise to fatigue. Biochemistry of exercise.
- Graham T.E., Spriet L. Metabolic, catecholamine and exercise performance responses to various doses of caffeine. J. Appl. Physiol, 1995, 78, 867-874.
- Haller C.A., Jacob III P., Benowitz N.L. Enhanced stimulant and metabolic effects of combined ephedrine and caffeine. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2004, 75, 259-273.